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Tens und EMS (Reizstrom) in Literatur und Internet

Dr. Gurvinder Rull, Prof. Cathy Jackson: Tens Machines
Aufsatz über die Anwendung von TENS in der Schmerztherapie (engl.)
https://patient.info/health/painkillers/tens-machines

Wikipedia: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
Artikel über das Wesen der Transkutanen Elektrischen Nervenstimulation (TENS/TNS) (engl.)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcutaneous_electrical_nerve_stimulation

Melzack R. and Wall P.D.: Pain Mechanisms: A New Theory
A Gate control system modulates sensory from the skin before it evokes pain perception and response
SCIENCE, Volume 150, Number 3699
http://www.thera-bandacademy.com/elements/clients/docs/melzak1965__090707_160722.pdf

Melzack R, Vetere P, Finch L. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for low back pain. A comparison of TENS and massage for pain and range of motion
Phys Ther 1983;63(4):489-493

Deyo RA, Walsh NE, et al. A controlled trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and exercise for chronic low back pain
N Engl J Med 1990;322(23):1627-1634

Kendra Cherry in Verywell mind: Gate Control Theory and the Brain
https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-gate-control-theory-2795208

Craig Freudenrich, Ph.D. : How Pain Works Gate Control Theory of Pain
https://science.howstuffworks.com/life/inside-the-mind/human-brain/pain4.htm

Lena Machetanz in NetDoktor: TENS Transkutane Elektrische Nervenstimulation in der Physiotherapie
https://www.netdoktor.de/therapien/elektrotherapie/tens/

Dr. Ralph Müller-Gesser in Apotheken Umschau
https://www.apotheken-umschau.de/TENS

G. Schnabel et al.: Trainingslehre – Trainingswissenschaft  Training der Kraftfähigkeit
Meyer & Meyer Verlag, 2009, ISBN 3898993329, Seite 328

Bloodworth DM, Nguyen BN, et al. : Comparison of stochastic vs. conventional transcutaneous electrical stimulation for pain modulation in patients with electromyographically documented radiculopathy 
Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Aug;83(8):584-91

Bronfort G, Nilsson N, et al. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(3):CD001878

Longobardi AG, Clelland JA, et al. Effects of auricular transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on distal extremity pain: a pilot study
Phys Ther 1989;69(1):10-17

Guieu R, Tardy-Gervet MF, Roll JP. Analgesic effects of vibration and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation applied separately and simultaneously to patients with chronic pain
Can J Neurol Sci 1991;18(2):113-119

Sherry E, Kitchener P, Smart R. A prospective randomized controlled study of VAX-D and TENS for the treatment of chronic low back pain Neurol Res 2001;23(7):780-784

Herman WW, Konzelman JL Jr, Comer RW
Using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation to prevent postoperative pain
J Am dent Assoc. 2002 May;133(5):643-5

Lewis B, Lewis D, Cumming G. The comparative analgesic efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for painful osteoarthritis
Br J Rheumatol 1994;33(5):455-460