Tens und EMS (Reizstrom) in Literatur und Internet

Dr. Gurvinder Rull, Prof. Cathy Jackson: Tens Machines
Aufsatz über die Anwendung von TENS in der Schmerztherapie (engl.)

Wikipedia: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
Artikel über das Wesen der Transkutanen Elektrischen Nervenstimulation (TENS/TNS) (engl.)

Melzack R. and Wall P.D.: Pain Mechanisms: A New Theory
A Gate control system modulates sensory from the skin before it evokes pain perception and response
SCIENCE, Volume 150, Number 3699

Melzack R, Vetere P, Finch L. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for low back pain. A comparison of TENS and massage for pain and range of motion
Phys Ther 1983;63(4):489-493

Deyo RA, Walsh NE, et al. A controlled trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and exercise for chronic low back pain
N Engl J Med 1990;322(23):1627-1634

Kendra Cherry in Verywell mind: Gate Control Theory and the Brain

Craig Freudenrich, Ph.D. : How Pain Works Gate Control Theory of Pain

Lena Machetanz in NetDoktor: TENS Transkutane Elektrische Nervenstimulation in der Physiotherapie

Dr. Ralph Müller-Gesser in Apotheken Umschau

G. Schnabel et al.: Trainingslehre – Trainingswissenschaft  Training der Kraftfähigkeit
Meyer & Meyer Verlag, 2009, ISBN 3898993329, Seite 328

Bloodworth DM, Nguyen BN, et al. : Comparison of stochastic vs. conventional transcutaneous electrical stimulation for pain modulation in patients with electromyographically documented radiculopathy 
Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Aug;83(8):584-91

Bronfort G, Nilsson N, et al. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;(3):CD001878

Longobardi AG, Clelland JA, et al. Effects of auricular transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on distal extremity pain: a pilot study
Phys Ther 1989;69(1):10-17

Guieu R, Tardy-Gervet MF, Roll JP. Analgesic effects of vibration and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation applied separately and simultaneously to patients with chronic pain
Can J Neurol Sci 1991;18(2):113-119

Sherry E, Kitchener P, Smart R. A prospective randomized controlled study of VAX-D and TENS for the treatment of chronic low back pain Neurol Res 2001;23(7):780-784

Herman WW, Konzelman JL Jr, Comer RW
Using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation to prevent postoperative pain
J Am dent Assoc. 2002 May;133(5):643-5

Lewis B, Lewis D, Cumming G. The comparative analgesic efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for painful osteoarthritis
Br J Rheumatol 1994;33(5):455-460